Often known as "NKS" after the title of Stephen Wolfram's 2002 book A New Kind of Science, Wolfram Science is a branch of basic science concerned with understanding the computational universe of possible programs: their behavior, general properties and applications. The idea of searching simple programs isn't new: in fact, it's probably a major force in biology, alongside natural selection, that leads to the endlessly creative and complex forms we see in biology. Stephen Wolfram's favorite discovery: an incredibly simple program that produces behavior so complex that many aspects of it seem random—and they're random enough to make a great pseudorandom generator. Wolfram Science is about generalizing this by using programs instead of equations to model the world. Wolfram|Alpha is full of heuristics that effectively automate human judgment and aesthetic choice. The Wolfram Science methodology involves large-scale searches that, if successful, immediately give the final result. Now it's time to mine the computational universe—and discover algorithms we'd never imagine. A key result in Wolfram Science is that even incredibly simple systems can serve as universal computers capable of being programmed to compute anything. Official Website of Wolfram Science and Stephen Wolfram's 'A New Kind of Science'. Wolfram Research often searches trillions of programs to find the best algorithm for a particular purpose, typically avoiding incremental and evolutionary methods that tend not to reach the truly unexpected. Wolfram Science involves computer experiments and experimental observation, theoretical abstract thinking, creating and assessing models—as well as visual thinking, with connections to aesthetics. List of all sections in Chapter 3 from Stephen Wolfram's A New Kind of Science When Stephen Wolfram's book appeared in 2002, it encountered the same kind of turbulence seen in many historical scientific paradigm shifts, but soon began the long process of widespread acceptance. Curated computable knowledge powering Wolfram|Alpha. Instant deployment across cloud, desktop, mobile, and more. and scale it up for production use. Like mathematics, Wolfram Science provides an introduction to abstract thinking—while also giving students an important theoretical and conceptual foundation for their life in today's world of ubiquitous computation. Following the rules to create a cellular automaton pattern is an activity accessible to kindergartners, already teaching the concept of an algorithm and the importance of precision, and showing connections to the real world. Wolfram Science highlights the rich space of other possible axioms that yield uninvented branches of mathematics. Art. The latest on exploring the computational universe. List of all sections in Chapter 12 from Stephen Wolfram's A New Kind of Science Research in Wolfram Science tends to involve extensive visualization of computational processes—a technique widely used in the development of Wolfram|Alpha. Concepts like the Principle of Computational Equivalence are long-term scientific ideas that require progressive validation—like the 2007 Wolfram-sponsored proof of the simplest universal Turing machine. Two decades in the making, this long-awaited work from one of the world's most respected scientists presents a series of dramatic discoveries never before made public. But the more I investigated, the more I realized that what I had seen was the beginning of a crack in the very foundations of existing science, and a first clue towards a whole new kind of science. Many of these heuristics were either found or deeply informed by Wolfram Science methods. Most traditional algorithms have very regular iterative (periodic) or recursive (nested) structures. Since 2003, the annual Wolfram Summer School has served as a highly successful model for project-based education in Wolfram Science. Section 1: How Do Simple Programs Behave? Stephen Wolfram started building Mathematica in 1986 so that he could have a tool to continue his work in basic science—and from 1991 to 2002 he used it to make the discoveries in A New Kind of Science. Knowledge-based broadly deployed natural language. Back in 2002, after years of labor, Wolfram self-published A New Kind of Science, a 1,200-page magnum opus detailing the general idea that nature runs … Stephen Wolfram's central principle, inferred from years of studying the computational universe—with deep implications for science, technology and our ways of thinking about the world. Exploration. The Wolfram Language has a variety of built-in functions for doing common operations in Wolfram Science—such as running cellular automata, Turing machines, and so on. Once a Wolfram Science discovery is made in the Wolfram Language, it's easy to take the algorithm, model, etc. The preeminent environment for any technical workflows. Since the 1600s, most of exact science has been based on constructing mathematical equations for the world. Large numbers of academic papers have used Wolfram Science methodologies to create models and make discoveries across an amazing diversity of natural, social and mathematical sciences—and beyond. We've been mining the physical universe for technology for millennia. The interactive and highly automated character of the Wolfram Language makes it uniquely suitable for doing computer experiments as soon as one thinks of them. An increasing number of Wolfram Language algorithms—for image analysis, function evaluation, randomness generation, machine learning, and much more—were found by mining the computational universe. Wolfram Notebooks are ideal for recording computer experiments, showing the sequence of steps taken, and inserting text with relevant observations. List of all sections in Chapter 2 from Stephen Wolfram's A New Kind of Science. Wolfram Science opens up a new way of thinking about computation, and a new approach to creating computational—and other—technology.