Adult females do not have as strong of a black mask and lack the black back seen on adult males, though some females show darker necklace stripes like a male. Two subspecies (Mexican subspecies C. v. tamaulipensis a very rare visitor to the US) are readily distinguished in the hand. Identifying them in the field will be more difficult, but should be possible. Adult females are often paler overall with thinner wingbars. The combination of white undertail coverts and black tip to the tail create a distinctive pattern useful for identifying all plumages of Magnolia Warblers. The genus name Setophaga is from Ancient Greek ses, "moth", and phagos, "eating", and the specific magnolia refers to the type locality.  The warbler breeds in dense forests, where it will most likely be found among the branches of young, densely packed, coniferous trees. Adult males are bright yellow below with obvious black streaking on the chest and flanks as well as a black mask and black back. It measures 11 to 13 cm (4.3 to 5.1 in) in length and spans 16 to 20 cm (6.3 to 7.9 in) across the wings. After the females come to the breeding grounds, both the males and females cooperate to build the nest for a week. Breeds in areas with young evergreen trees. The magnolia warbler is assessed on the IUCN Red List as least concern for conservation because it is fairly widespread and common within its habitat and not at risk of extinction. The baby warblers are ready to fly out of the nest by the time they are ten days old. White undertail coverts and black-tipped tail are diagnostic at all ages. Though the color palette is subdued all winter, it is still spectacular to seek these birds out on their spring migration or on their breeding grounds. Females/immatures have a gray head and faint gray band across the neck. Found in dense stands of all ages during migration.  The magnolia warbler can be distinguished by its coloration. Female Kirtland's have a spotted belly and lack the necklaced look of Magnolia Warblers.  These birds also tend to eat parts of the branches of mid-height coniferous trees, such as spruce firs, in their usual breeding habitat. The magnolia warbler is found in the northern parts of some Midwestern states and the very northeastern parts of the US, with states such as Minnesota and Wisconsin comprising its southernmost boundaries.  Because the males are technically as equally responsible for feeding the newborns as the females are, this means that the males are monogamous because they expend a large amount of energy looking for food for their young. The female lacks the male's bold accoutrements, instead wearing an elegant white eyering on her gray head, 2 thin white wingbars, and yellow underparts with moderate streaking. During the winter, the warbler migrates through the eastern half of the United States to southern Mexico and Central America. Females/immatures have less black on the back and fainter streaking on the flanks and chest. The magnolia warbler is found in the northern parts of some Midwestern states and the very northeastern parts of the US, with states such as Minnesota and Wisconsin comprising its southernmost boundaries. Researchers have observed two different types of songs in male magnolia warblers. Erica H. Dunn and George A. Forages primarily in trees and shrubs, but sometimes forages for insects on the ground. See more images of this species in Macaulay Library. Breeds in small conifers, especially young spruces, in purely coniferous stands or mixed forests.