It is true that the science of medicine, as it now exists, contains few things whose utility is very remarkable: but without any wish to depreciate it, I am confident that there is no-one, even among those whose profession it is, who does not admit that all at present known in it is almost nothing in comparison of what remains to be discovered; and that we could free ourselves from an infinity of maladies of body as well as of mind, and perhaps also even from the debility of age, if we had sufficiently ample knowledge of their causes, and of all the remedies provided for us by nature. without examination, to deny what has been said, I wish it to be considered that the motion which I have now explained follows as necessarily from the very arrangement of the parts, which may be observed in the heart by the eye alone, and from the heat which may be felt with the fingers, and from the nature of the blood as learned from experience, as does the motion of a clock from the power, the situation, and shape of its counterweights and wheels. It is thus quite certain that the constitution of the true religion, the ordinances of which are derived from God, must be incomparably superior to that of every other. At the start of the process, one has only a proposition taken hypothetically. The portion removed is covered with a thin piece of paper. For he truly engages in battle who endeavours to surmount all the difficulties and errors which prevent him from reaching the knowledge of truth, and he is overcome in fight who admits a false opinion touching a matter of any generality and importance, and he requires thereafter much more skill to recover his former position than to make great advances when once in possession of thoroughly ascertained principles. Of these considerations, the first is, that if I failed to do so, many who were cognizant of my previous intention to publish some writings, might have imagined that the reasons which induced me to refrain from so doing, were less to my credit than they really are; for although I am not immoderately desirous of glory, or even, if I may venture so to say, although I am averse from it in so far as I deem it hostile to repose which I hold in greater account than aught else, yet, at the same time, I have never sought to conceal my actions as if they were crimes, nor made use of many precautions that I might remain unknown; and this partly because I should have thought such a course of conduct a wrong against myself, and partly because it would have occasioned me some sort of uneasiness which would again have been contrary to the perfect mental tranquillity which I court. This task of discovery was the point of the analytic method. His model is the traditional doctrine of transubstantiation according to which the bread and wine during the saying of the mass is miraculously transformed by God into the body and blood of Christ. Rene Descartes’s “Discourse on the Method” highlights several strong beliefs–including that the human mind is a malleable, thinking machine, and that our distinctive thoughts are the foundation for the functioning of our immortal souls, although there are certain concrete laws of nature (Descartes, 29). These were observations that had not before been recorded: they were part of the “new world” that science was just beginning to explore. Descartes’ knowledge of the laws of physics and of mechanics falls far short of Newton’s. While rejecting the anti-theological positions adopted by these latter Greek and Roman philosophers, Descartes sided with them in opposing teleological explanations. Needless to say, these plastic forms were non-empirical entities. (Recall here that an idea, which, as Descartes speaks, formally exists as a property of the mind, exists objectively as the form or essence of a substance; the idea is true only if that the substance of which it is the essence actually exists in sense that it has actually the properties the essence determines that it ought to have; the idea is false if the substance has properties contrary to those that the essence requires it to have.). So, the Meditator has the idea of a being that lacks no Good, no perfection–for any way of being this entity has that way either actually or formally. I was thus led to take the liberty of judging of all other men by myself, and of concluding that there was no science in existence that was of such a nature as I had previously been given to believe. The reasonable person will accede to those demands, just as reason must attempt a universal doubt. I was especially delighted with the mathematics, on account of the certitude and evidence of their reasonings; but I had not as yet a precise knowledge of their true use; and thinking that they but contributed to the advancement of the mechanical arts, I was astonished that foundations, so strong and solid, should have had no loftier superstructure reared on them. Descartes proposed to use this method to discover the axioms for his synthetic deductions: he is inspired by its uses in algebra, but extends it to his proof that the truths of geometry, arithmetic and physics, while self-evident, can themselves be demonstrated to be incorrigibly true from still more fundamental premises. Naturally enough this reverses the order of the Meditations themselves, which proceed in the order of the analytic method. The common picture of Descartes is as one who proposed that all science become demonstrative in the way Euclid made geometry demonstrative, namely as a series of valid deductions from self-evident truths, rather than as something rooted in observation and experiment. One proceeds by taking it as an hypothesis that x and y are solutions, and works out what those solutions are. Accordingly, seeing that our senses sometimes deceive us, I was willing to suppose that there existed nothing really such as they presented to us; and because some men err in reasoning, and fall into paralogisms, even on the simplest matters of geometry, I, convinced that I was as open to error as any other, rejected as false all the reasonings I had hitherto taken for demonstrations; and finally, when I considered that the very same thoughts (presentations) which we experience when awake may also be experienced when we are asleep, while there is at that time not one of them true, I supposed that all the objects (presentations) that had ever entered into my mind when awake, had in them no more truth than the illusions of my dreams. I am in doubt as to the propriety of making my first meditations in the place above mentioned matter of discourse; for these are so metaphysical, and so uncommon, as not, perhaps, to be acceptable to every one.