For the following verbs, 1). I move; I stop). The Ancient Greek verbal system has seven tense - aspect forms, traditionally called "tenses". The persistent accent of the infinitive is on the ANTEPENULT. This makes sense, when we realize that the difference between the MIDDLE and PASSIVE could at times be almost indistinguishable for Greeks. In these cases, this final vowel of the stem contracts with the thematic vowel of –ω verbs. ἐσ-μέν (es-mén) "we are". Conjugate in full, including the infinitive, the following verbs in the Present, Indicative, Middle: IΙI. II. If so, these markers are retained in the MIDDLE VOICE: The Present, Indicative, Middle of δείκνυμι (athematic; S 418; GPH p. 156), Present Indicative Middle Infinitive: δείκνυσθαι, The Present, Indicative, Middle of λύω (thematic; S 383; GPH p. 69), Present Indicative Middle Infinitive: λύεσθαι, The Present, Indicative, Middle of λαμβάνω (thematic), Present Indicative Middle Infinitive: λαμβάνεσθαι. Consider, for example, the following pairs of sentences: Distinguishing voice can be difficult for speakers of English who have been taught that there are only two voices: active and passive. All –ω verbs have a sort of buffer sound just before the verb’s ending. In the MIDDLE VOICE, both types of verbs use exactly the SAME PERSONAL ENDINGS to designate person and number, as well as the infinitive mood. These types of verbs, unsurprisingly, are known as –μι verbs. In other words, the subject is both the cause and the focus, the agent and experiencer, of a verbal action. Finally, for some Greek verbs, there can be an important distinction in meaning between the ACTIVE and MIDDLE VOICES (S 1728, 1734). –σθαι signals that a verb is in the infinitive. Ancient Greek for Everyone by Wilfred E. Major and Michael Laughy is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Consequently, while all the Greek verbs in this chapter are parsed – and almost always translated – in the MIDDLE voice, they can occasionally be translated with an English PASSIVE when context demands. All endings are short. Greek originally inflected verbs to indicate ACTIVE and MIDDLE VOICES. Recall that adding –σ– to the verb stem marks a verb as in the FUTURE TENSE. There were no distinct PASSIVE forms, nor does that voice seem to have been used. Example: φυετε: 1) φύετε 2) φύεσθε 3) φύσεσθε. MIDDLE VOICE: The subject is part or all of the action. As the need for the PASSIVE VOICE emerged, Classical and Koine Greek used the MIDDLE VOICE forms of the verb to represent also the PASSIVE VOICE (S 1735). Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. They just use somewhat different endings to designate person and number. Recall that some verbs add a marker (often a ν) to the stem to indicate that the verb is in the present tense. Recall that there are two types of Greek verbs in the present tense: – μι verbs (athematic) – ω verbs (thematic) In the ACTIVE VOICE, present tense athematic and thematic verbs use somewhat different endings to designate person and number, as well as the infinitive. Voice, you will recall, indicates the role that the subject plays in the action of the verb. Thematic verbs are much more numerous. Note also that the accent of the infinitive is on the antepenult of the uncontracted form. The rules of vowel contraction operate in verbs when the stem ends in one of the vowels α, ε or ο. A subject is inevitably participating in the action of coming or going, so it just seemed natural that some of these verb should be in the MIDDLE VOICE. ACTIVE VOICE: The subject causes the action. It is important to understand, however, that the fundamental dichotomy for Greeks was actually between ACTIVE and MIDDLE. Ancient Greek verbs can be divided into two groups, the thematic (in which a thematic vowel /e/ or /o/ is added before the ending, e.g. The Future, Indicative, Middle of δείκνυμι, The Future Indicative Middle Infinitive: δείξεσθαι, The Future, Indicative, Middle of λύω (S 383; GPH p. 75), Future Indicative Middle Infinitive: λύσεσθαι. The term DEPONENT VERBS (Latin for, CONJUGATING THE PRESENT, INDICATIVE, MIDDLE, CONJUGATING THE FUTURE, INDICATIVE, MIDDLE, CONJUGATING THE PRESENT, INDICATIVE, MIDDLE: CONTRACT VERBS, γίγνομαι, γενήσομαι happen, become, be born, σκοπέω/σκέπτομαι, σκέψομαι look at, examine, consider, λαμβανω (fut. Both types of verbs build and parse the same way. In this lesson, we introduce the MIDDLE VOICE. So now the stem looks and sounds like this: Remember: ALL VERBS, whether they be –μι verbs or –ω verbs in the present, use –ω verb endings in the future tense. This is true in both the ACTIVE and MIDDLE VOICES. Provide the correct accent, 2). If someone frees or unties your horse, then the verb is in the ACTIVE VOICE in Greek: But if you untie your own horse so that you can ride it, this would be in the Greek MIDDLE VOICE: Oftentimes, verbs that are intransitive and ACTIVE in English are rendered in the MIDDLE VOICE in Greek, particularly if there is a reflexive quality about them (e.g. Recall that there are two types of Greek verbs in the present tense: In the ACTIVE VOICE, present tense athematic and thematic verbs use somewhat different endings to designate person and number, as well as the infinitive. Say you have a horse. –εσθαι signals that a verb is in the infinitive. If a verb is thematic (-ω verb), then a thematic vowel (-ο/-ε) is added before its endings. (-εσαι →) –ει or –ῃ = you (2nd person singular). Note that the second person singular regularly appears in one of two contracted forms that result from the loss of the INTERVOCALIC SIGMA (S 628). One clue to identifying a PASSIVE use of a middle form is to look for ὑπό followed by a genitive; when modifying a passive verb, this construction indicates the agent of the verb. Observe the following inflections, paying close attention to the contractions that result in the 2nd person singular.