Gross Negligence Manslaughter - This is a common law offence, which can be committed via an act or an omission. Answers to Exam Practice Questions. This is because there was no apprehension of violence, which is a necessary part of a criminal assault charge. Figure 3: Apparatus to Investigate Hooke’s Law. This point is shown in Figure 2 as Fracture. MRN AQA A-level Law. Newton’s first law states that an object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force. The property that allows any material to regain its shape is called elasticity. Another good quote to use is from Lord Hewart CJ, in R v Bateman, where the court argued that “to support an indictment for manslaughter theprosecution must satisfy the jury that the negligence of the accused… showed such disregard for the life and safety of others as to amount to a crime against the State and conduct deserving punishment.”. There is one common property behind stretching of a spring and rubber band that come back to their original shape. tend to develop cracks and then eventually break. In R v Adomako, the defendant was an anaesthetist, whose job it was to monitor amongst other things, the oxygen supply to the patient during a routine eye operation. Newton’s laws of motion are three physical laws that describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. Physics A-Level Resources for AQA, OCR and Edexcel. Paperback #1 Best Seller in Politics & Government for Young Adults. However, it was more recently defined very clearly in the case of R v Adomako. Consider a wagon as illustrated in Figure 1. The aim of this experiment is to find the effect of adding masses on the extension of the spring. Beyond the plastic region, some brittle materials (e.g. Plasticine is an example of such a material. Unlawful Act Manslaughter is a common law offence and isn’t defined under any particular statute. Consider two wagons, as illustrated in Figure 2, where the weight placed on the second wagon (m2) is higher than the weight placed on the first wagon (m1). Beyond the elastic limit, the change in shape is said to be plastic deformation. This is an act which is unlawful and would be considered dangerous. In general, the first law defines the force qualitatively, the second law offers a quantitative measure of the force, and the third asserts that a single isolated force doesn’t exist. Design of weightlifting equipment (cranes and forklifts). Finally, the unlawful and dangerous act must be the cause of the death. Some of the applications are: Hooke’s law deals with a basic concept in physics – elasticity. In equation form, Newton’s second law can be expressed as. This apparatus is set up. The spring extended 2 mm each time a 10 g mass is added (which increased the force due to gravity by 0.1 N). In a vertical launch of a rocket (Figure 3), the weight of the rocket and drag (air resistance) act downwards. Gross Negligence Manslaughter - This is a common law offence, which can be committed via an act or an omission. A civil wrong is not enough, as illustrated in the case of R v Franklin, where the defendant threw a box off a pier, killing a swimmer. It was originally defined in R v Bateman. It was originally defined in R v Bateman. Newton’s third law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. A football lying on a field will remain idle until someone kicks it. At the trial it was established that the defendant clearly breached their duty of care to the victim by failing to monitor the victim’s oxygen levels. A good quote to use in your exam answers comes from Lord Mackay LC, in Adomako: “whether having regard to the risk of death involved, the conduct of the defendant was so bad in all the circumstances as to amount in their judgment to a criminal act or omission”. 10 g mass is added to the holder and the extension is recorded. … When the thrust force is higher than the combined forces of weight and drag, then the rocket moves upwards. This will help us understand Hooke’s law scientifically. The spring constant is the force per unit extension. Craig Beauman. It summarises what you need to know on Natural Moral Law for the new 2017 AQA Religious Studies specification. AQA A-Level Biology Revision For each of the papers below, there are revision notes, summary sheets, questions from past exam papers separated by topic and other worksheets. Natural Moral Law - Revision Notes (A LEVEL AQA RS 2017 NEW SPEC) (no rating) 0 customer reviews. However, since the injection of heroin was what killed the victim, rather than simply being supplied with it, the defendant was found not guilty of unlawful act manslaughter. The elastic limit is the maximum force that can be applied to a wire/spring such that the wire/spring returns to its original length when the load is removed. A Level Biology revision notes made for the AQA exam boards. In this article, Hooke’s law, a demonstration to understand the law, elastic limit and applications of Hooke’s law are discussed. Exam Practice answers. Once the load is increased above a certain limit, the spring fails to return to its original shape and size even after the load is removed. AQA A-Level Law (7162) and AS-Level Law (7161) exam past papers and marking schemes. The grossness also depends upon the seriousness of the breach of duty committed by the defendant, in all the circumstances in which the defendant was placed, when it occurred. Thus, Newton’s first law can be demonstrated. In general, the first law defines the force qualitatively, the second law offers a quantitative measure of the force, and the third asserts that a single isolated force doesn’t exist. This covers all the topics and modules for all specifications including 2410, 7401, 7402. This is a very useful way of changing the base (in this formula, the base does matter! The apparatus is shown in Figure 3. Paperback. An aircraft flying at a constant speed will remain so until an external force acts on it to stop. The offence is defined as an unlawful, criminal act, which is dangerous and which causes the death of the victim. In fact, at the trial, expert witnesses argued that a competent anaesthetist would have realised the signs of the oxygen tube disconnection after about 15 seconds, rather than the four minutes that the defendant took, and even then only after being alerted by the alarm on the machine. This is because for the laws of logarithms, it doesn"t matter what the base is, as long as all of the logs are to the same base. The fundamental law that governs this interesting phenomenon is the Hooke’s law. ). In some cases, it may be possible that the unlawful and dangerous act is merely coincidental to the death. However, it was more recently defined very clearly in the case of R v Adomako. Finally, it is up to the jury to decide whether the level of negligence exhibited was “so gross” as to amount to a criminal rather than a civil negligence charge. The widespread applications in various fields makes it an important material behaviour. In this article, Newton’s laws of motion and their practical implications are explained. Cases involving drug taking are interesting to note. The thrust from the propulsion of the rocket acts upwards. Preview. In the absence of an external force, the wagon will not move. Where serious harm is recognised, students should consider that a Murder charge may be more appropriate, as there is the possibility that the defendant might satisfy the requirement for “malice aforethought implied”, as illustrated in the case of R v Vickers. Recognition of serious harm is not required for danger to be established. Check out Adapt — the A-level & GCSE revision timetable app. The property that allows any material to regain its shape is called elasticity. £17.99 New AS and A-Level Sociology: AQA Complete Revision & Practice (with … The law means that in every interaction, there is a pair of forces acting on the two interacting objects. The section from origin to the point P is a straight line. NB: In the above example, I have not written what base each of the logarithms is to. According the the judgement in R v Lawrence and reaffirmed in R v Adomako, the risk to the victim must be of death, rather than simply a risk of some injury. This follows Hooke’s law, which states that the extension of an elastic object (like a spring) is directly proportional to the force added. The increase in the length is called the extension and the force (weight) exerted on the spring is called the load.